CJC-1295 is an analogue of growth hormone releasing factor (1-29) (GRF (1-29)) to which a moiety known as the Drug Affinity Complex has been attached. It is often abbreviated GRF-DAC or DACTM :GRF. CJC-1295 was created by ConjuChem Biotehcnologies in an effort to improve the plasma half-life of GRF (1-29).
Confusion with Modified GRF (1-29)
There is a great deal of confusion surrounding the relationship between CJC-1295 and modified GRF (1-29). The confusion arises due to the fact that modified GRF (1-29) is often sold under the name CJC-1295-No DAC. This is an inappropriate use of the CJC-1295 nomenclature.
CJC is short for ConjuChem Biotechnologies, the company that developed CJC-1295. Technically, CJC-1295 is GRF (1-29) to which the DAC (see below) complex has been added. Modified GRF (1-29) is GRF that has had four amino acids altered. Though CJC-1295-No DAC is used to refer to modified GRF (1-29) by a number of individuals, it is not accepted nomenclature. The best way to avoid confusion when dealing with these molecules and synthetic peptides is to look at their molecular structures and determine what each molecule is. Here are the structures of GRF (1-29), CJC-1295, and modified GRF (1-29). The differences between GRF (1-29) and the other two are in bold, italic, underlined text.
Structure of GRF (1-29):
Structure of CJC-1295-DAC:
Structure of Modified GRF (1-29) (a.k.a. CJC-1295-No DAC):
What Is DAC?
DAC is short for Drug Affinity Complex, a proprietary molecule developed by ConjuChem Biotechnologies to protect proteins that circulate in the bloodstream from metabolic degradation. DAC allows proteins to being to albumin, a normal blood protein. Once bound, the proteins are protected from enzymes in the blood that destroy peptides. DAC can extend the half-life of a peptide substantially. In the case GRF (1-29), DAC extends the half-life from 30 minutes to 30 hours.
What Does CJC-1295 Do?
Like GRF (1-29), CJC-1295 stimulates the release of growth hormone (GH) from the anterior pituitary gland. This, in turn, stimulates the release of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) from the liver. The combined effects of GH and IGF-1 lead to cell hyperplasia (increase in number of cells) as well as cell hypertrophy (increase in size of cells). These combined effects increase muscle mass, increase bone density, lower blood sugar, improve fat metabolism and fat loss, increase protein synthesis, and improve myocardial (heart muscle cell) function.
Unlike GRF (1-29), CJC-1295 causes what is known as GH leak. GH leak refers to the fact that GH isn’t released in spurts, the standard physiologic release pattern, but rather is released at a high rate that tapers offer slowly over days. In other words, CJC-1295 causes a prolonged, non-physiologic release of growth hormone.
The tapering effect seen with GH that is released secondary to CJC-1295 is due to the fact that CJC-1295 has a far longer half-life than GRF (1-29) or growth hormone releasing hormone (the endogenous molecule from which GRF (1-29) is derived). Studies indicated that GH levels remain 2- to 10-fold higher for up to a week after CJC-1295 administration compared to GRF (1-29). IGF-1 levels remain elevated (1.5- to 3-fold) for roughly 11 days.
CJC-1295 is a simply GRF (1-29) to which the Drug Affinity Complex has been bound. Its effects are identical to those of GRF (1-29), but last substantially longer (30 hours rather than 30 minutes). CJC-2195 is not the same molecule as modified GRF (1-29), though modified GRF (1-29) is sometimes incorrectly labeled as CJC-1295-No DAC.